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    “范文大全” 調查報告

    關于頸椎病的調查報告范文

    發布時間:2019-07-05 05:12:40 來源:調查報告 手機版

      前言:頸椎病在中國屬高發病種,又是難于治愈的頑疾,給患者帶來難以名狀的痛苦折磨。報告的首要任務是“弄清此病的病因、病理,從源頭上下功夫,標本兼治,減少發病人群,降低發病率”。目的是“研究開發治療此病功效奇特的’靈丹妙藥‘,提高療效,減輕患者苦痛,同時探討行之有效的手術,力求根治痊愈”,是人們殷切地期盼,也是我的心愿。

      一、什么是頸椎病

      頸椎病又稱頸椎綜合征,包括頸椎的關節炎、增生性的頸椎炎、頸椎神經根綜合征、椎間盤脫出病的總稱。是一種以退行性病理改變為基礎的疾患,主要由于頸椎長期勞損骨質增生或椎間盤脫出,韌帶增厚致使頸椎脊神經根或椎動脈受壓,導致一系列的功能障礙。表現為頸椎椎間盤退行性改變及其繼發性的一系列病理改變,如椎節失調、松動、椎核突出或脫出、生成骨刺、韌帶肥厚和繼發的椎管狹窄等等,刺激壓迫神經疾患。患者疼痛難忍,不能直立或行走,重者則出現癱瘓。是一種難于治愈又非常折磨人的頑疾。

      二、頸椎病的高發人群

      經調查分析,結合醫院病例檔案,認定如下為此病額高發人群。

      1.職業

      長期從事伏案低頭工作,或頭頸常向一個方向轉動的工作者,此類工作人員是患頸椎病的主流,即是高發人群。如緊張的上班族、辦公室工作人員、書寫員、打字員、會計、設計員、描圖員、教師、計算機工、電腦操作員、司機、繡花工、刻字工等等,勞動強度雖不大,但因長期工作姿勢不當,或低頭、偏頭、扭頭,造成頸部韌帶勞損,損傷關節。天長日久,潛移默化,椎間盤受力過大,導致頸椎病的發生。據有關資料統計,此類工作人員發病率約60%左右。

      2.年齡

      頸椎病患者中青少年少見,中老年居多,又是高發人群。隨著年齡的增長,日久天長,頸椎過多的勞損,引發椎間盤的變性,彈性減弱,椎體邊緣形成骨刺,韌帶增厚,小關節紊亂,一系列的慢性病理演變,最終導致頸椎病的發生,所以中老年患者是此病的高發人群。

      3.不良習慣者

      躺著看書、看電視,或者半躺,把頭枕在沙發扶手上或靠在床頭上、高枕睡眠者,久而久之,頸椎受損,引發頸椎病。

      4.頸椎先天性不良者

      頸椎先天性畸形者,如先天性椎管狹窄,先天性椎體融合等。

      三、頸椎病的表現

      1.頸椎病患者頸椎酸痛,可放射性影響頭部和上肢;

      2.肩背部沉重,上肢無力,手指發麻,手無力,握物會不自覺的掉下來,肢體皮膚感覺減退;

      3.腳無力或發麻,行走不穩,好像踏在棉花上;

      4.甚至大小便失禁,重者四肢癱瘓;

      5.脖子僵硬,活動不便,頭部、頸肩、手臂酸痛;

      6.個別伴有頭暈、天旋地轉、臥床不起、惡心嘔吐;

      7.當頸椎病累及交感神經時,出現嚴重的頭疼頭暈,眼部發脹、視力模糊,耳鳴嚴重,失去平衡,心動過速、心慌,腸胃難受;

      四、頸椎病的病因

      1.勞損

      頭部長期處于單一姿勢,如長時間伏案低頭工作,致使頸椎勞損;

      2.不良姿勢

      經常躺在床上看書、看電視,高枕睡眠,坐姿睡覺等;

      3.頭部外傷

      頭頸部外傷,會引發頸椎骨質增生,椎間盤膨出,椎骨內軟組織病變等;

      4.外界風寒

      風寒因素降低機體對疼痛的耐受力,肌肉痙攣,血管收縮,淋巴回流減慢,產生無菌性炎癥;

      5.頸椎結構發育不良

      先天性小椎管,頸椎退變等;

      6.慢性感染

      主要引起咽喉炎、齲齒、牙周炎、中耳炎等,這些部位炎癥,刺激頸部軟組織,通過淋巴系統引起頸椎部軟組織病變。

      五、頸椎病病理

      1.頸椎血管退變與硬化,使血管腔變窄,血流受阻,導致供血不足;

      2.椎管間隙變窄

      由于頸椎退變,使頸椎間隙變窄,引起頸椎動脈相對過長,而出現曲折彎曲,血流受阻,導致供血不足。

      六、頸椎病的治療方式

      1.藥物治療

      內服藥物通過腸胃吸收、消化、分解,再通過血液循環,經過層層屏障到達病灶部位;

      2.牽引法

      通過牽引力與反牽引力相互平衡,頭頸部固定于生理曲線狀態,通過緩緩地牽拉,慢慢地矯正異常的頸椎曲線;

      3.理療法

      應用自然界和人工的各種物理因子,如聲、光、電、熱、磁等作用于人體,從而實現治療目的;

      4.推拿手法

      此法為祖國醫學的重要組成部分,治療時不吃藥、不打針,只憑推拿醫生的雙手和簡單的器械,在人體的一定部位或穴位,沿經絡循環路線推拿,;

      5.水針刀微創療法

      治療無痛苦,松解局部軟組織的結節,結合注射松解液和三氧硝酸術、針刀、藥、氧并用,三位一體,一步到位,可以消除或軟化局部結節,從而改變內循環;

      6.五維壯骨法

      手術法原理,減輕壓迫,消除刺激,增進穩定,防止進行性損害。此法療效不高,很少采用;

      7.GRT熱凝靶點術療法

      查閱此法湖南骨科中心的特色療法,即利用神經專用射頻儀在CT直接監護下,將椎間盤突出部分的髓核通過靶點熱凝原理,使其變性、凝固、收縮,減少體積,解除壓迫。

      七、預防頸椎病措施

      1.改正生活中的不良姿勢

      生活中的不良姿勢,是形成頸肩部慢性勞損的主要原因,日積月累、潛移默化鑄就了頸椎病。預防頸椎病,改正不良姿勢陋習十分重要,要時刻注意,不可小視。日常看電視、看書報,保持頭頸部平直不彎曲,不要躺在床頭板上或沙發扶手上,免得曲頸彎背,造成脊柱頸肩韌帶損傷。人一生三分之一的時間是在床上度過,睡床不選彈簧或席夢思之類的軟床,木板床為好。睡姿要正確,一般仰臥為主,側臥為輔,左右交替,千萬不可俯臥。正確睡姿,保持頸部平直,不受力不彎曲,順其自然。

      2.嚴防頭頸部外傷

      頭頸部跌撲傷、碰擊傷,易發生脊柱及周圍軟組織損傷。如發生意外傷害,除治療軟組織損傷外,還必須及時治療頸椎小關節錯位,免得導致頸椎病發生。

      3.預防慢性勞損

      前述易患頸椎病人群,連續工作時間以小于2小時為宜,可做操或自行適當活動。勞動強度大的要適時休息,恢復精力,活動筋骨,疏通血脈,免得頭頸部慢性勞損,減少或清除頸椎病的發生;

      4.冬天注意保暖

      中老年人脊柱多有退行性改變,要防止頸椎病發生。冬天外出和夜晚睡眠,要十分注意保暖,防止頸肩受寒,避免冷刺激誘發頸椎病和肩周炎。

      八、自行運動防治頸椎病

      1.頸部運動

      站立、雙手插腰,頭向前后左右傾各20次,然后頭向左右旋轉20次,運動輕緩,幅度要大,極限位定5秒;

      2.前屈后伸

      站立肩平,頸部前屈深呼氣,后伸仰臉吸氣,前屈后伸角度要大,做10次;

      3后撐拉伸

      雙腳并攏,身體直立,雙手放身后,相互握緊,雙肩向厚展,頭部后仰,握緊的雙手上抬;

      4.穴位按摩

      風池穴在頸部正后方,發跡線交界處,兩側對稱,用雙手大拇指用力按壓數十次;

      5.上肢運動

      站立平肩,目視前方,左手插腰,右手正反搖動各32,再換右手插腰,左手正反搖動各32次;

      6.手指伸屈

      立正站立,兩臂左右平伸,手掌向下方,手指反復伸屈32次,節奏有力;

      7.雙耳按摩

      用雙手四指分別按摩耳下、耳上、全耳各48次;

      8.前傾后仰

      雙腳并攏,平肩站立,雙手握緊上舉過頂,后仰32次,極限位定5秒。前傾雙手向下觸地最好,32次,極限位定5秒;

      9.放風箏

      放風箏四季皆可,陽春三月最佳,是一項情趣濃厚的活動,一會兒仰頭看天上的風箏,一會兒俯首看地,頻頻頭部活動,又加上美好心情,治療、預防頸椎病效果十分明顯。

      個人預防、治療頸椎病的方法很多,以上篩選出的項目,易學易記,效果明顯。

      結束語:經”病患者社區專訪“、”醫院頸椎科病案查閱“、”學習頸椎病有關醫學知識“,在紛繁地”病患+案例+知識“交匯中,完成此調查報告。同時建議國家抽調專家組成”頸椎病預防治療“專門機構,大膽攻關突破,躍居世界前列。由于水平有限、時間短促、接觸面窄,故不當之處在所難免,懇請尊師斧正。

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